A liver enzyme is a protein that helps to speed up a chemical reaction in the liver. The activity of the liver enzymes - measured in the blood rsp. serum - does not only inform about available illnesses, but is affected also - not specifically - by excessive consumption of alcohol. Therefore the so-called liver values are used in the alcoholism diagnosis and for monitoring of abstinence, e.g. in the redistribution of the driving licence. After a period of alcoholic abstinence the liver values, if no other illnesses are present, normalize themselves within some months. For a comparison of reference values it is to be noted that both different tests and different units are in usage.
Gamma Glutamyltranspeptidase. In the cell membrane of the liver located enzyme, which is strongly increased with chronic alcohol admission in the serum. Increased GGT findings are less specific regarding a chronic consumption of alcohol. Increased values are also obtained by different causes, e.g. liver and pancreas illnesses, medicines. The standard range depends on the used test and the measuring temperature. Normal values (IFCC, 37 oC) men < 66 U/l, women < 39 U/l. Normal values (25 oC) men 6-28 U/l (< 0,82 µMol/sl), women 4-18 U/l (< 0,53 µMol/sl). In cases of alcohol-conditioned increase, after abstinence a normalization occurs within 2-5 weeks, at the latest 2 months. The sensitivity is differently reported as approx. 40% to 70%. Measurement must take place in the fresh serum.
Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, also as L-aspartate-2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase designated. In the Cytoplasm and the mitochondries of the liver located enzyme, which is strengthened provable by malfunctions in blood serum. Normal values: (IFCC, 37 o) men < 38 U/l, women < 32 U/l, (25 oC) men 5-17 U/l, women 5-15 U/L. GOT is used together with GPT as (nonspecific) alcoholism marker. Other causes, which are applicable for an increase: liver or bile illnesses, cardiac infarct.
Glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, also as alaninea aminotransferase designated, is located in the cytoplasm of the liver. Normal values in blood serum: (IFCC, 37 oC) men < 41 U/l, women < 31 U/l, (25 oC) men 5-23 U/l, women 5-19 U/l. Together with GOT usage as (nonspecific) alcoholism marker. Other causes for an increase: hepatitis, liver cancer, inflammations of bile blister and bile course, toxic liver damage (intoxications).