Alcohol is completly soluble in water which means it can be carried over the blood stream to get into every cell causing many different types of harm through out the body.
Ethanol affects already in small doses the central nervous system. Below 20 mg/100 ml BAC a disinhibitory effect with increase of the talking blessedness is observed. Starting from 30 mg/100ml BAC it comes to first impairments like the restriction of the visible area and problems in estimating distances. Starting from 50 mg/100 ml BAC the reaction ability decreases (longer response time), in particular on red signals (red light weakness). Starting from 80 mg/100 ml BAC first disturbances of balance arise, the visual field is restricted (tunnel view), loss of inhibitions. Within the range of 100 to 150 mg/100 ml BAC language disturbances, the readiness to take risks and agressivity arise. With 200 to 250 mg/100ml BAC strong disorders of co-ordination and balance appears, also babbling articulation.
Above 250 mg/100 ml BAC it comes to cloudiness of the consciousness, paralysis features, doubling seeing and elimination of the memory ability. With paralysis of the breath center starting from approx. 350 mg/100 ml BAC a life-threatening condition occurs, which can lead to coma or death
Alcohol affects the blood stream by increasing of the peripheral blood circulation. The skin is turned red and delivers more warmth (with alcoholics, the danger of the freezing to death exists!).
The increased kidney blood circulation leads to a strengthened urine elimination (Diuresis). The liver is strongly stressed for decontamination.
As damage of the peripheral nervous system it comes to a polyneuropathy. Alcohol damages the nerve cells, whereby whole brain regions can die, see also Korsakov syndrome and Wernicke encephalopathy.
With permanent alcohol admission it comes to disturbances of the liver metabolism, analytically provable on the basis the status of the liver enzymes, which can finally lead across the stage of a fat liver to a liver cirrhosis.
With durable extension of the blood vessels it comes to a sack formation.
Since alcohol damages also the mucous membranes and salivary glands, the risk of mouth, throat, laryngeal and esophagus cancer rises by regular consumption of alcohol (in particular with high-per cent liquors).
See also alcohol Resorption and alcohol elimination.